Ca2+ ions are multi-functional second messengers required for many aspects of human physiology. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are transmembrane pathways for Ca2+ ions to enter cells and activate gene transcription, muscle contraction, and hormone/ neurotransmitter release. Our lab studies the forces that regulate Ca2+ channels and their roles in refining Ca2+ signals in the nervous and cardiovascular systems. We hope to identify new routes by which Ca2+ channels may be targeted in novel treatments for diseases associated with Ca2+ channel defects such as blindness, deafness, migraine, autism, ataxia, and cardiac arrhythmia.